LANFREDI, S., MATOS, J., DA SILVA, S.R., DJURADO, E., SADOUKI, A.S., CHOUAIH, A., POON, P.S., GONZÁLEZ, E.R.P., NOBRE, M.A.L.:
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 272, 2020, 118986.
New functional polycation oxide-type catalysts were synthesized by the ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis method. The catalytic activity in the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE’s) using soybean oil was studied. Catalysts are conformed by nanostructured hollow spheres of low density with a stoichiometric formula Ca1-xKxTiCux/2O3. The influence of the substitutional ratio (x) upon the catalytic activity was verified. The Ca1-xKxTiCux/2O3 sample with x = 0.3 showed the highest activity with a yield up to 89 % to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE’s) after 24 h reaction using 15 wt.% catalysts, 120 °C and 40 bars. The enhancement in the activity was ascribed to the substitution of the Ca+2sites by K+ and Ti+4 by Cu+2 and to the hollow morphology favoring a more effective interaction between the soybean oil and the active basic sites of the catalysts.