Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonol profiles of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) fruits

RUIZ, A.; PASTENE, E.; VERGARA, C.; VON BAER, D.; AVELLO, M.; MARDONES, C.:
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 61, 2792-2796 (2016).

DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072016000100010

Abstract

Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) is an edible berry native to Southern Chile. The anthocyanin profiles and concentrations of this fruit have been widely studied. The high concentration of anthocyanins confers a deep colour to the skin and pulp of maqui berries, and the biological activity of this fruit has been attributed to these compounds. However, other compounds such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in this fruit have not been studied to date.

The objective was to determine the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonol profiles in maqui berries in order expand the knowledge base for this fruit.

Two extraction methodologies (solid phase extraction using a mixed mode cation exchange cartridge and selective precipitation), followed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS were applied to the extraction and identification of the main hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols in the berries. Quantification was accomplished by using the first extraction procedure.

Low levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected in maqui berries, where 5-galloylquinic acid was the only quantifiable derivative. However, diverse and high levels of flavonols were detected in the fruit, the most relevant of which are myricetin-galactoside, quercetin-rutinoside, and quercetin-3-galactoside. Nineteen other flavonols were identified, with total concentrations between 1.05 and 1.18 μmol/g fresh weight.

The diversity of flavonols makes the profiles and concentrations of these compounds significant, whereas hydroxycinnamic acids in maqui are not significan! The comparatively high levels of flavonols combined with the high concentration of anthocyanins contribute to the consideration of this native fruit from Chileas a “superfruit”.

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